I’ve wanted to do an exercise and diabetes post for a long time now. I am by no means an expert on diabetes, but I wanted to research and put up a post on this important subject. More importantly, I would like people to comment and hopefully point to more resources about diabetes and exercise. My goal is that over time, the comment section on this particular post will grow into a nice resource on the topic. There are so many bright readers and contributors that I would love to see this happen.
[It would be great if we could help some people kick diabetes butt. Even if this post simply helps people control their diabetes...that would be cool.]
The Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes: This is the rougher of the two types of diabetes. Only 15 percent out of all the people with diabetes have type 1. Bottom line – a person with type 1 diabetes cannot produce insulin. They have to take insulin regularly to stay alive. Type 1 diabetes in NOT preventable. You cannot reverse or prevent type 1 by doing lots of exercise or eating carefully. It is not a result of a person’s lifestyle.
Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes can be caused by lifestyle (but not always). Often times people with type 2 diabetes have been overweight and unfit for long periods of time. This typically happens later in life, and is why it is also referred to as “Adult-Onset Diabetes”. Unfortunately due to the rise of childhood obesity, people in their teens and 20′s are now developing type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes develop a condition where the insulin isn’t working properly…they are insulin resistant.
So We Will Discuss Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance
Since 85% of all people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes is something that can be improved (and sometimes prevented) with diet and exercise…this is the main focus of the post.
Insulin Resistance – A Simple Explanation
I hope I haven’t lost anyone so far…I used to skim when I saw terms like “insulin resistance”. Here is a simple explanation: The cells in the body don’t respond properly to insulin…glucose isn’t getting shuttled from the blood into the cells properly. The issue is with the cells in the body…there is enough insulin, but the cells are not responding to it like they should. Since the cells are not responding to the proper amount of insulin, people with type 2 diabetes often need to take additional insulin.
Why Insulin Resistance Happens in the First Place
So it makes sense that we would want to avoid insulin resistance. Again…I’m going to simply a complex process. It is more complicated than I what I have outlined, but this will give you a general idea on how to possibly avoid insulin resistance.
- Frequent high exposure to insulin increases insulin resistance.
- Large amounts of food in one sitting releases more insulin.
- Frequent insulin spikes, speed up insulin resistance.
- Obesity can lead to insulin resistance.
- Lack of exercise can lead to insulin resistance.
[The first part of this post is about getting a basic understanding of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Now let's talk about what types of exercise helps control and reduce insulin resistance...and reduces the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.]
Time to Talk About How Exercise Can Help With Diabetes
So we know that being overweight can contribute to insulin resistance and getting diabetes. We also know that diet and spiking your insulin by overeating on a regular basis can contribute to type 2 diabetes. So what type of exercise is going to help with diabetes? Here is what I found through a little research.
High Intensity Sprinting for Diabetes: Richard Nikoley has a good post on how High Intensity Interval Training can reduce the effects of diabetes. Richard’s blog, Free the Animal, is one of the best health and fitness blogs on the net by the way. Dig around once you are there. Here is the gist of the post:
- Intense exercise draws glucose out of the muscle…then the muscles pulls the glucose out of the bloodstream and into the muscle cells.
So depleting your muscles of glucose, assists the cells in getting the glucose from the bloodstream to the muscle cells.
Combination—Weights and Aerobics—Best for Diabetics: Clarence Bass is a guy I first read about when I was 15. The guy was the most ripped 40+ year old I had ever seen. I have been a fan of his work and love it that he is still going strong. You can dig around his site for a long time and learn a lot of great things. In this post he refers to a recent study from November 24th, 2010 published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Here is what this study found:
- A combination of aerobic and resistance training helped patients with diabetes better than just walking or doing resistance training alone.
So Clarence Bass found a study which shows that a combination of resistance training and aerobics (cardio) had the best effects on helping with diabetes. “Only the change in the combination group was considered statistically significant…The combination group also saw a lowering in the amount of diabetes medication needed on average.”
The Definitive Guide to Insulin, Blood Sugar & Type 2 Diabetes: Mark Sisson does an outstanding job of explaining type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in this post. If you have read my blog for any period of time, you know I am a big fan of Mark’s Daily Apple. It is a great site. Here is Mark’s take on diabetes and exercise.
- First off, exercise does have a major impact on improving insulin sensitivity since muscles burn your stored glycogen as fuel during and after your workout. Muscles that have been exercised desperately want that glucose inside and will “up regulate” insulin receptors to speed the process. That’s one reason exercise is so critical for type 2 diabetics in regaining insulin sensitivity.
Mark also believes that a combination of resistance training and aerobics is the way to go…”Resistance training seems to be as effective as aerobic activity, but a mix of the two is the best.”
Proper Exercise Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes?
Unfortunately some people will develop type 2 diabetes even while staying in great shape, exercising and following a healthy diet. That being said, a large portion of people who develop diabetes could have avoided it with regular exercise and a smart diet. Some takeaways:
- Include some High Intensity Interval Training in your routine.
- If you just perform resistance training, add in cardio.
- If you just perform cardio, add in resistance training.
- Avoid becoming obese or overweight.
- If you’re overweight, simply lose that excess weight ASAP.
I Am Just Scratching the Surface Here…
I would love to hear from people who either have diabetes and how they cope with it…or other helpful books and studies people have found online. I also realize that I barely spoke about how excess carbs can contribute to insulin resistance. Although this article’s focus was exercise and diabetes, I’m fine if we discuss diet and diabetes in the comment section as well.